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maptree.c

/******************************************************************************
 *
 * Project:  MapServer
 * Purpose:  .qix spatial index implementation.  
 * Author:   Steve Lime
 *           Derived from code in shapelib.
 *
 ******************************************************************************
 * Copyright (c) 1996-2005 Regents of the University of Minnesota.
 *
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
 * copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"),
 * to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation
 * the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense,
 * and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
 * Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 *
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in 
 * all copies of this Software or works derived from this Software.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
 * OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
 * THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING
 * FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
 * DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
 ******************************************************************************
 *
 * $Log: maptree.c,v $
 * Revision 1.18  2006/04/19 16:36:18  hobu
 * don't throw an MS_IOERR when we're in debug mode when we don't find an index (bug 1752)
 *
 * Revision 1.17  2005/08/25 14:20:16  sdlime
 * Applied patch for bug 1440.
 *
 * Revision 1.16  2005/06/14 16:03:35  dan
 * Updated copyright date to 2005
 *
 * Revision 1.15  2005/02/18 03:06:47  dan
 * Turned all C++ (//) comments into C comments (bug 1238)
 *
 * Revision 1.14  2004/10/21 04:30:56  frank
 * Added standardized headers.  Added MS_CVSID().
 *
 */

#include "map.h"
#include "maptree.h"

MS_CVSID("$Id: maptree.c,v 1.18 2006/04/19 16:36:18 hobu Exp $")

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/*      If the following is 0.5, nodes will be split in half.  If it    */
/*      is 0.6 then each subnode will contain 60% of the parent         */
/*      node, with 20% representing overlap.  This can be help to       */
/*      prevent small objects on a boundary from shifting too high      */
/*      up the tree.                                                    */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
#define SPLITRATIO  0.55

static int treeAddShapeId(treeObj *tree, int id, rectObj rect);

static void SwapWord( int length, void * wordP )
{
  int i;
  uchar     temp;
  
  for( i=0; i < length/2; i++ )
    {
      temp = ((uchar *) wordP)[i];
      ((uchar *)wordP)[i] = ((uchar *) wordP)[length-i-1];
      ((uchar *) wordP)[length-i-1] = temp;
    }
}

static void * SfRealloc( void * pMem, int nNewSize )

{
    if( pMem == NULL )
        return( (void *) malloc(nNewSize) );
    else
        return( (void *) realloc(pMem,nNewSize) );
}

static treeNodeObj *treeNodeCreate(rectObj rect)
{
    treeNodeObj   *node;

    node = (treeNodeObj *) malloc(sizeof(treeNodeObj));

    node->numshapes = 0;
    node->ids = NULL;

    node->numsubnodes = 0;

    memcpy(&(node->rect), &(rect), sizeof(rectObj));

    return node;
}


SHPTreeHandle msSHPDiskTreeOpen(const char * pszTree, int debug)
{
    char          *pszFullname, *pszBasename;
    SHPTreeHandle psTree;
  
    char          pabyBuf[16];
    int                 i;
    char          bBigEndian;
    
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*  Establish the byte order on this machine.                 */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    i = 1;
    if( *((uchar *) &i) == 1 )
      bBigEndian = MS_FALSE;
    else
      bBigEndian = MS_TRUE;
  
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*  Initialize the info structure.                                  */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    psTree = (SHPTreeHandle) malloc(sizeof(SHPTreeInfo));
  
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*  Compute the base (layer) name.  If there is any extension       */
  /*  on the passed in filename we will strip it off.                 */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    pszBasename = (char *) malloc(strlen(pszTree)+5);
    strcpy( pszBasename, pszTree );
    for( i = strlen(pszBasename)-1; 
       i > 0 && pszBasename[i] != '.' && pszBasename[i] != '/'
       && pszBasename[i] != '\\';
       i-- ) {}
  
    if( pszBasename[i] == '.' )
      pszBasename[i] = '\0';
  
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*  Open the .shp and .shx files.  Note that files pulled from      */
  /*  a PC to Unix with upper case filenames won't work!              */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    pszFullname = (char *) malloc(strlen(pszBasename) + 5);
    sprintf( pszFullname, "%s%s", pszBasename, MS_INDEX_EXTENSION); 
    psTree->fp = fopen(pszFullname, "rb" );

    msFree(pszBasename); /* don't need these any more */
    msFree(pszFullname);    

    if( psTree->fp == NULL ) {      
      msFree(psTree);
      return( NULL );
    }
    
    fread( pabyBuf, 8, 1, psTree->fp );

    memcpy( &psTree->signature, pabyBuf, 3 );
    if( strncmp(psTree->signature,"SQT",3) )
    {
  /* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*     must check if the 2 first bytes equal 0 of max depth that cannot   */
  /*     be more than 65535. If yes, we must swap all value. The problem    */
  /*     here is if there's no Depth (bytea 5,6,7,8 in the file) all bytes  */
  /*     will be set to 0. So,we will test with the number of shapes (bytes */
  /*     1,2,3,4) that cannot be more than 65535 too.                       */
  /* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
      if (debug)
      {
          msDebug("WARNING in msSHPDiskTreeOpen(): %s is in old index format "
                  "which has been deprecated.  It is strongly recommended to "
                  "regenerate it in new format.\n", pszTree);
      }
      if((pabyBuf[4] == 0 && pabyBuf[5] == 0 && 
          pabyBuf[6] == 0 && pabyBuf[7] == 0))
      {
        psTree->LSB_order = !(pabyBuf[0] == 0 && pabyBuf[1] == 0);
      }
      else
      {
        psTree->LSB_order = !(pabyBuf[4] == 0 && pabyBuf[5] == 0);
      }
      psTree->needswap = ((psTree->LSB_order) != (!bBigEndian));

  /* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*     poor hack to see if this quadtree was created by a computer with a */
  /*     different Endian                                                   */
  /* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
      psTree->version = 0;
    }
    else
    {
      psTree->needswap = (( pabyBuf[3] == MS_NEW_MSB_ORDER ) ^ ( bBigEndian ));

      psTree->LSB_order = ( pabyBuf[3] == MS_NEW_LSB_ORDER );      
      memcpy( &psTree->version, pabyBuf+4, 1 );
      memcpy( &psTree->flags, pabyBuf+5, 3 );

      fread( pabyBuf, 8, 1, psTree->fp );
    }

    if( psTree->needswap ) SwapWord( 4, pabyBuf );
    memcpy( &psTree->nShapes, pabyBuf, 4 );
  
    if( psTree->needswap ) SwapWord( 4, pabyBuf+4 );
    memcpy( &psTree->nDepth, pabyBuf+4, 4 );
  
    return( psTree );
}


void msSHPDiskTreeClose(SHPTreeHandle disktree)
{
    fclose( disktree->fp );  
    free( disktree );
}


treeObj *msCreateTree(shapefileObj *shapefile, int maxdepth)
{
  int i;
  treeObj *tree;
  rectObj bounds;

  if(!shapefile) return NULL;

  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      Allocate the tree object                                        */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  tree = (treeObj *) malloc(sizeof(treeObj));
  
  tree->numshapes = shapefile->numshapes;
  tree->maxdepth = maxdepth;

  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      If no max depth was defined, try to select a reasonable one     */
  /*      that implies approximately 8 shapes per node.                   */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  if( tree->maxdepth == 0 ) {
    int numnodes = 1;
    
    while(numnodes*4 < shapefile->numshapes) {
      tree->maxdepth += 1;
      numnodes = numnodes * 2;
    }
  }

  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      Allocate the root node.                                         */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  tree->root = treeNodeCreate(shapefile->bounds);

  for(i=0; i<shapefile->numshapes; i++) {
    if ( !msSHPReadBounds(shapefile->hSHP, i, &bounds))
      treeAddShapeId(tree, i, bounds);
  }

  return tree;
}

static void destroyTreeNode(treeNodeObj *node)
{
  int i;
  
  for(i=0; i<node->numsubnodes; i++ ) {
    if(node->subnode[i]) 
      destroyTreeNode(node->subnode[i]);
  }
  
  if(node->ids)
    free(node->ids);

  free(node);
}

void msDestroyTree(treeObj *tree)
{
  destroyTreeNode(tree->root);
  free(tree);
}

static void treeSplitBounds( rectObj *in, rectObj *out1, rectObj *out2)
{
  double range;

  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      The output bounds will be very similar to the input bounds,     */
  /*      so just copy over to start.                                     */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  memcpy(out1, in, sizeof(rectObj));
  memcpy(out2, in, sizeof(rectObj));
  
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      Split in X direction.                                           */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  if((in->maxx - in->minx) > (in->maxy - in->miny)) {
    range = in->maxx - in->minx;
    
    out1->maxx = in->minx + range * SPLITRATIO;
    out2->minx = in->maxx - range * SPLITRATIO;
  }

  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      Otherwise split in Y direction.                                 */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  else {
    range = in->maxy - in->miny;
    
    out1->maxy = in->miny + range * SPLITRATIO;
    out2->miny = in->maxy - range * SPLITRATIO;
  }
}

static int treeNodeAddShapeId( treeNodeObj *node, int id, rectObj rect, int maxdepth)
{
  int i;
    
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      If there are subnodes, then consider whether this object        */
  /*      will fit in them.                                               */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  if( maxdepth > 1 && node->numsubnodes > 0 ) {
    for(i=0; i<node->numsubnodes; i++ ) {
      if( msRectContained(&rect, &node->subnode[i]->rect)) {
      return treeNodeAddShapeId( node->subnode[i], id, rect, maxdepth-1);
      }
    }
  }

  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      Otherwise, consider creating four subnodes if could fit into    */
  /*      them, and adding to the appropriate subnode.                    */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
#if MAX_SUBNODES == 4
  else if( maxdepth > 1 && node->numsubnodes == 0 ) {
    rectObj half1, half2, quad1, quad2, quad3, quad4;

    treeSplitBounds(&node->rect, &half1, &half2);
    treeSplitBounds(&half1, &quad1, &quad2);
    treeSplitBounds(&half2, &quad3, &quad4);
  
    if(msRectContained(&rect, &quad1) || msRectContained(&rect, &quad2) ||    msRectContained(&rect, &quad3) || msRectContained(&rect, &quad4)) {
      node->numsubnodes = 4;
      node->subnode[0] = treeNodeCreate(quad1);
      node->subnode[1] = treeNodeCreate(quad2);
      node->subnode[2] = treeNodeCreate(quad3);
      node->subnode[3] = treeNodeCreate(quad4);
      
      /* recurse back on this node now that it has subnodes */
      return(treeNodeAddShapeId(node, id, rect, maxdepth));
    }
  }
#endif

    /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    /*      Otherwise, consider creating two subnodes if could fit into     */
    /*      them, and adding to the appropriate subnode.                    */
    /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
#if MAX_SUBNODE == 2
    else if( maxdepth > 1 && node->numsubnodes == 0 ) {
      rectObj half1, half2;
      
      treeSplitBounds(&node->rect, &half1, &half2);

      if( msRectContained(&rect, &half1)) {
      node->numsubnodes = 2;
      node->subnode[0] = treeNodeCreate(half1);
      node->subnode[1] = treeNodeCreate(half2);
      
      return(treeNodeAddShapeId(node->subnode[0], id, rect, maxdepth-1));
      } else 
      if(msRectContained(&rect, &half2)) {
            node->numsubnodes = 2;
            node->subnode[0] = treeNodeCreate(&half1);
            node->subnode[1] = treeNodeCreate(&half2);

            return(treeNodeAddShapeId(node->subnode[1], id, rect, maxdepth-1));
        }
    }
#endif /* MAX_SUBNODE == 2 */

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/*      If none of that worked, just add it to this nodes list.         */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    node->numshapes++;

    node->ids = SfRealloc( node->ids, sizeof(ms_int32) * node->numshapes );
    node->ids[node->numshapes-1] = id;

    return MS_TRUE;
}

static int treeAddShapeId(treeObj *tree, int id, rectObj rect)
{
  return(treeNodeAddShapeId(tree->root, id, rect, tree->maxdepth));
}

static void treeCollectShapeIds(treeNodeObj *node, rectObj aoi, char *status)
{
  int i;
    
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      Does this node overlap the area of interest at all?  If not,    */
  /*      return without adding to the list at all.                       */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  if(!msRectOverlap(&node->rect, &aoi))
    return;

  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      Add the local nodes shapeids to the list.                       */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  for(i=0; i<node->numshapes; i++)
    msSetBit(status, node->ids[i], 1);
  
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*      Recurse to subnodes if they exist.                              */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  for(i=0; i<node->numsubnodes; i++) {
    if(node->subnode[i])
      treeCollectShapeIds(node->subnode[i], aoi, status);
  }
}

char *msSearchTree(treeObj *tree, rectObj aoi)
{
  char *status=NULL;

  status = msAllocBitArray(tree->numshapes);
  if(!status) {
    msSetError(MS_MEMERR, NULL, "msSearchTree()");
    return(NULL);
  }
  
  treeCollectShapeIds(tree->root, aoi, status);

  return(status);
}

static int treeNodeTrim( treeNodeObj *node )
{
    int     i;

    /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    /*      Trim subtrees, and free subnodes that come back empty.          */
    /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    for(i=0; i<node->numsubnodes; i++ ) {
      if(treeNodeTrim(node->subnode[i])) {
      destroyTreeNode(node->subnode[i]);
      node->subnode[i] = node->subnode[node->numsubnodes-1];
      node->numsubnodes--;
      i--; /* process the new occupant of this subnode entry */
      }
    }

    if( node->numsubnodes == 1 && node->numshapes == 0 ) {
      node = node->subnode[0];
    }
/* if I only have 1 subnode promote that subnode to my positon */ 

    /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
    /*      We should be trimmed if we have no subnodes, and no shapes.     */
    /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */

    return(node->numsubnodes == 0 && node->numshapes == 0);
}

void msTreeTrim(treeObj *tree)
{
  treeNodeTrim(tree->root);
}

static void searchDiskTreeNode(SHPTreeHandle disktree, rectObj aoi, char *status) 
{
  int i;
  ms_int32 offset;
  ms_int32 numshapes, numsubnodes;
  rectObj rect;

  int *ids=NULL;

  fread( &offset, 4, 1, disktree->fp );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 4, &offset );

  fread( &rect, sizeof(rectObj), 1, disktree->fp );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 8, &rect.minx );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 8, &rect.miny );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 8, &rect.maxx );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 8, &rect.maxy );
      
  fread( &numshapes, 4, 1, disktree->fp );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 4, &numshapes );

  if(!msRectOverlap(&rect, &aoi)) { /* skip rest of this node and sub-nodes */
    offset += numshapes*sizeof(ms_int32) + sizeof(ms_int32);
    fseek(disktree->fp, offset, SEEK_CUR);
    return;
  }
  if(numshapes > 0) {
    ids = (int *)malloc(numshapes*sizeof(ms_int32));

    fread( ids, numshapes*sizeof(ms_int32), 1, disktree->fp );
    if (disktree->needswap )
    {
      for( i=0; i<numshapes; i++ )
      {
        SwapWord( 4, &ids[i] );    
        msSetBit(status, ids[i], 1);
      }
    }
    else
    {
      for(i=0; i<numshapes; i++)
        msSetBit(status, ids[i], 1);
    }
    free(ids);
  }

  fread( &numsubnodes, 4, 1, disktree->fp );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 4, &numsubnodes );

  for(i=0; i<numsubnodes; i++)
    searchDiskTreeNode(disktree, aoi, status);

  return;
}

char *msSearchDiskTree(char *filename, rectObj aoi, int debug)
{
  SHPTreeHandle   disktree;
  char *status=NULL;

  disktree = msSHPDiskTreeOpen (filename, debug);
  if(!disktree) {

    /* only set this error IF debugging is turned on, gets annoying otherwise */
    if(debug) msSetError(MS_NOTFOUND, "Unable to open spatial index for %s. In most cases you can safely ignore this message, otherwise check file names and permissions.", "msSearchDiskTree()", filename);

    return(NULL);
  }

  status = msAllocBitArray(disktree->nShapes);
  if(!status) {
    msSetError(MS_MEMERR, NULL, "msSearchDiskTree()");
    msSHPDiskTreeClose( disktree );
    return(NULL);
  }

  searchDiskTreeNode(disktree, aoi, status);

  msSHPDiskTreeClose( disktree );
  return(status);
}

treeNodeObj *readTreeNode( SHPTreeHandle disktree ) 
{
  int i,res;
  ms_int32 offset;
  treeNodeObj *node;

  node = (treeNodeObj *) malloc(sizeof(treeNodeObj));
  node->ids = NULL;

  res = fread( &offset, 4, 1, disktree->fp );
  if ( !res ) 
      return NULL;

  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 4, &offset );
   
  fread( &node->rect, sizeof(rectObj), 1, disktree->fp );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 8, &node->rect.minx );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 8, &node->rect.miny );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 8, &node->rect.maxx );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 8, &node->rect.maxy );
      
  fread( &node->numshapes, 4, 1, disktree->fp );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 4, &node->numshapes );
  if( node->numshapes > 0 )
    node->ids = (ms_int32 *)malloc(sizeof(ms_int32)*node->numshapes);
  fread( node->ids, node->numshapes*4, 1, disktree->fp );
  for( i=0; i < node->numshapes; i++ )
  {
    if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 4, &node->ids[i] );    
  }

  fread( &node->numsubnodes, 4, 1, disktree->fp );
  if ( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord ( 4, &node->numsubnodes );
  
  return node;
}

treeObj *msReadTree(char *filename, int debug)
{
  treeObj *tree=NULL;
  SHPTreeHandle   disktree;

  disktree = msSHPDiskTreeOpen( filename, debug );
  if(!disktree) {
    msSetError(MS_IOERR, NULL, "msReadTree()");
    return(NULL);
  }

  tree = (treeObj *) malloc(sizeof(treeObj));
  if(!tree) {
    msSetError(MS_MEMERR, NULL, "msReadTree()");
    return(NULL);
  }
  
  tree->numshapes = disktree->nShapes;
  tree->maxdepth = disktree->nDepth;

  tree->root = readTreeNode( disktree );

  return(tree);
}

static ms_int32 getSubNodeOffset(treeNodeObj *node) 
{
  int i;
  ms_int32 offset=0;

  for(i=0; i<node->numsubnodes; i++ ) {
    if(node->subnode[i]) {
      offset += sizeof(rectObj) + (node->subnode[i]->numshapes+3)*sizeof(int);
      offset += getSubNodeOffset(node->subnode[i]);
    }
  }

  /* offset is the disk offset in the index file on disk       */
  /*   that format is (per node)                               */
  /*      int       offset                4 bytes                                   */
  /*      rectObj   rect                  4 * 8 bytes                         */
  /*    int       numShapes         4 bytes                                   */
  /*    int       ids[numShapes]    4 * numShapes bytes                 */
  /*    int       numSubNodes       4 bytes                                   */
  /*                                                           */
  
  return(offset);
}


static void writeTreeNode(SHPTreeHandle disktree, treeNodeObj *node) 
{
  int i,j;
  ms_int32 offset;
  char *pabyRec = NULL;

  offset = getSubNodeOffset(node);
  
  pabyRec = malloc(sizeof(rectObj) + (3 * sizeof(ms_int32)) + (node->numshapes * sizeof(ms_int32)) );

  memcpy( pabyRec, &offset, 4);
  if( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord( 4, pabyRec );
    
   memcpy( pabyRec+4, &node->rect, sizeof(rectObj));
  for (i=0; i < 4; i++)
    if( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord( 8, pabyRec+4+(8*i) );

  memcpy( pabyRec+36, &node->numshapes, 4);
  if( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord( 4, pabyRec+36 );

  j = node->numshapes*sizeof(ms_int32);
  memcpy( pabyRec+40, node->ids, j);
  for (i=0; i<node->numshapes; i++)
    if( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord( 4, pabyRec+40+(4*i));
  
  memcpy( pabyRec+j+40, &node->numsubnodes, 4);
  if( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord( 4, pabyRec+40+j ); 

  fwrite( pabyRec, 44+j, 1, disktree->fp);
  free (pabyRec);
  
  for(i=0; i<node->numsubnodes; i++ ) {
    if(node->subnode[i])
      writeTreeNode(disktree, node->subnode[i]);
  }


  return;
  
}

int msWriteTree(treeObj *tree, char *filename, int B_order)
{
  char            signature[3] = "SQT";
  char            version = 1;
  char            reserved[3] = {0,0,0};
  SHPTreeHandle disktree;
  int       i;
  char            mtBigEndian;
  char            pabyBuf[32];
  char            *pszBasename, *pszFullname;
  
  
  disktree = (SHPTreeHandle) malloc(sizeof(SHPTreeInfo));

  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*  Compute the base (layer) name.  If there is any extension       */
  /*  on the passed in filename we will strip it off.                 */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  pszBasename = (char *) malloc(strlen(filename)+5);
  strcpy( pszBasename, filename );
  for( i = strlen(pszBasename)-1; 
       i > 0 && pszBasename[i] != '.' && pszBasename[i] != '/'
       && pszBasename[i] != '\\';
       i-- ) {}
  
  if( pszBasename[i] == '.' )
    pszBasename[i] = '\0';
  
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*  Open the .shp and .shx files.  Note that files pulled from      */
  /*  a PC to Unix with upper case filenames won't work!              */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  pszFullname = (char *) malloc(strlen(pszBasename) + 5);
  sprintf( pszFullname, "%s%s", pszBasename, MS_INDEX_EXTENSION); 
  disktree->fp = fopen(pszFullname, "wb");
  
  msFree(pszBasename); /* not needed */
  msFree(pszFullname);
  
  if(!disktree->fp) {
    msFree(disktree);
    msSetError(MS_IOERR, NULL, "msWriteTree()");
    return(MS_FALSE);
  }
  
  
  /* for efficiency, trim the tree */
  msTreeTrim(tree);
  
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  /*  Establish the byte order on this machine.                 */
  /* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
  i = 1;
  if( *((uchar *) &i) == 1 )
    mtBigEndian = MS_FALSE;
  else
    mtBigEndian = MS_TRUE;
  
  if( !(mtBigEndian ^ ( B_order == MS_LSB_ORDER || B_order == MS_NEW_LSB_ORDER )) )
    disktree->needswap = 1;
  else
    disktree->needswap = 0;
  
  if( B_order == MS_NATIVE_ORDER )
    disktree->needswap = 0;
  
  /* write the header */
  if ( B_order > 0 ) {  
    memcpy( pabyBuf, &signature, 3 );
    memcpy (&disktree->signature, &signature, 3);
    pabyBuf[3] = B_order;
    
    memcpy( pabyBuf+4, &version, 1);
    memcpy( pabyBuf+5, &reserved, 3);
    
    memcpy( &disktree->version, &version, 1);
    memcpy( &disktree->flags, &reserved, 3);
    
    fwrite( pabyBuf, 8, 1, disktree->fp );
  }
  
  memcpy( pabyBuf, &tree->numshapes, 4 );
  if( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord( 4, pabyBuf );
  
  memcpy( pabyBuf+4, &tree->maxdepth, 4 );
  if( disktree->needswap ) SwapWord( 4, pabyBuf+4 );
  
  i = fwrite( pabyBuf, 8, 1, disktree->fp );
  if( !i ) {
    fprintf (stderr, "unable to write to index file ... exiting \n");
    return (MS_FALSE);
  }
  
  writeTreeNode(disktree, tree->root);  

  msSHPDiskTreeClose( disktree );

  return(MS_TRUE);
}

/* Function to filter search results further against feature bboxes */
void msFilterTreeSearch(shapefileObj *shp, char *status, rectObj search_rect)
{
  int i;
  rectObj shape_rect;

  for(i=0;i<shp->numshapes;i++) { /* for each shape */
    if(msGetBit(status, i)) {
      if(!msSHPReadBounds(shp->hSHP, i, &shape_rect))
      if(msRectOverlap(&shape_rect, &search_rect) != MS_TRUE)
        msSetBit(status, i, 0);
    }
  }
}

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